FREMONT, CA – The rapid urbanization across the world has led to the migration of people from rural regions into the cities, and this, in turn, has given rise to new challenges in cadastral registration. The cadastral registration needs to realize the third spatial dimension to register the complex and convoluted infrastructure of the urban areas.
The 2D parcel paradigm does not provide the required tools to register complex structures, especially those where distinct units are located one on top of the other. The increase in the number of 3D situations has reduced the effectiveness of 2D solutions, placing a demand on 3D parcels.
The 3D cadastre utilizes 3D spatial units, either single or multiple volumes of space. The technology provides tremendous opportunities to revolutionize geospatial data. However, the 3D cadastre is a nascent technology and requires further research and development before it can be adopted on a larger scale.
The land administration domain model (LADM) serves as a reference model for the development and refinement of effective land administration systems. It is based on model-driven architecture (MDA) and enables efficient communication between the involved parties regardless of their countries. The LADM reinforces the 3D models by defining a conceptual model comprising of the required information regarding the components of land administration, including the elements above and below the surface of the earth.
The cadastral data models are utilized for legal information modeling and management. The adoption of 3D cadastral requires dynamic linking of 3D legal rights, restrictions and responsibilities spaces, LADM, and the initial registration 3d spatial units. The main challenges holding back 3D cadastral are the acceptable cadastral object representations and the creation of 3D geometries.
As it is with 2D geometry, 3D volumetric primitives should also satisfy the gap and overlap relationships to remain mutually exclusive and spatially exhaustive. The existing definitions of solids, such as PolyhedralSurface in SQL geometry types of OGC do not comply with the standards. Hence, it becomes troublesome to validate the solids and effectively exchange datasets.
LADM addresses most of the challenges in 3D representation and storage of 3D data in DBMS. It facilitates in-row storage of 3D data in a 2D/3D database, enabling seamless retrieval and analysis of data. It also allows the attribution of faces and boundary lines, enhancing the effectiveness of the geospatial models.